Science Resources

Science 10 Saskatchewan Curriculum Resources for Adult Basic Education


Citizen Science Projects



COVID-19 Four Waves to 16.08.2021As of August 16, 2021


Corona Virus (Johns Hopkins)

What is Coronavirus?

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (World Health Organization) 


Rate of death from COVID-19, by province, August of 2021

How effective have our response actions been?


COVID-19 Fatalities are 99.5% Unvaccinated.

What is the best way to protect ourselves?

The “99% survive COVID” argument is deceptive and completely misses the point


Pandemics: a brief history


How Tuberculosis Spreads

How Tuberculosis Spreads

Tuberculosis:  By the Numbers

  • Tuberculosis (TB) is second only to HIV/AIDS as the greatest killer worldwide due to a single infectious agent.
  • About one-third of the world’s population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not (yet) ill with disease and cannot transmit the disease.
  • People infected with TB bacteria have a lifetime risk of falling ill with TB of 10%.
  • Without proper treatment up to two thirds of people ill with TB will die.

Fort Qu'Appelle Sanatorium

Fort Qu’Appelle Sanatorium (Saskatchewan, Canada)

The Saskatchewan Anti-Tuberculosis League

The “Great White Plague” was the name used to describe tuberculosis. To fight the highly contagious disease the Saskatchewan Anti-Tuberculosis League was formed in 1911. Under its auspices Fort Qu’Appelle Sanatorium, pictured above, was opened in 1917 to provide rest and fresh air. But the cure was long and tedious; few could afford to remain until they were healed. So in 1929, through the League’s urging, Saskatchewan was the first province to make the care and treatment of tuberculosis free of charge.


T.B. Blues (Lead Belly)


Typhoid Mary

“Typoid Mary” was a disease vector, and a kind of zombie.

Beware of zombies.  They can be very bad for your health.


Street Drug Marks

What is in these tablets?

Amphetamines (methamphetamine and amphetamine) are among the most commonly abused illicit substances in the world. In 2016, it was estimated that around 35 million adults worldwide used amphetamines.¹ The region with the highest annual use was North America at approximately 2% of the population. In the last few years however, there also appears to be a marked increase in consumption within other geographies, particularly East and Southeast Asia, where the amphetamines have been identified as one of the most worrying threats of drug use. Moreover, a rise in the use of Ecstasy (3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) in West Asia has been noted, though it is estimated that less than half of the tablets purported to be Ecstasy, truly contain MDMA, but are commonly found to contain methamphetamine, amphetamine, or ketamine.²

Methamphetamine (Old Crow Medicine Show)


FASD Identification by Mathematics

Asymmetry-index and orthodontic facial analysis of children with foetal alcohol syndrome using 3D-facial scans

“According to Lange et al.,6 the worldwide estimated prevalence for FASD is 0.77% with regional differences ranging from 1.98% in Europe to 0.01% in the eastern Mediterranean region. A study analysing the prevalence of FASD in a UK population found a prevalence of 6–7.2%.7 The prevalence of FASD in Canadian school children was estimated to be between 2 and 3%.8 Another study by May et al.9 found a prevalence of 1.1–5% in first grade school children in the United States.9



Pentagon officially releases ‘UFO’ videos (2004 & 2015, 1:17)

Sphynx and Pyramid

“The pyramids were built by space aliens.”

How to Start a Rumour



“The truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.”


A Wildfire Story: Severity — Landscapes in Motion

Fire scars on a tree cookie.  Dendrochronology is the technique used to assign dates for when these fires occurred.  This tree lived from 1797 to 1989 and has scars from surviving multiple fires between 1831 and 1910.                  Photo by C. Naficy.

‘Megadrought’ and ‘Aridification’ — Understanding the New Language of a Warming World


Surviving in the wild: How to make a bow-drill set to start a fire without  matches or a lighter | CBC Life

Surviving in the wild: How to make a bow-drill set to start a fire

What Is Fire?

The Complexity of Fire

Prehistory, Southern Saskatchewan - Indigenous Saskatchewan Encyclopedia -  University of Saskatchewan

Indigenous Pottery, Saskatchewan




Earth Science

Geology & Physical Geography


All about the Nodes (astrological and astronomical explanation) : astrology


Influence of climate on malaria transmission depends on daily temperature  variation | PNAS

Seasonal Climate Variations


File:Carte des biomes.png - Wikimedia Commons



File:Terrestrial ecoregions USA CAN MEX.svg - Wikimedia Commons

Terrestrial Ecoregions


Chiara Pedrocchi (chiarapedrocchi1977) - Profilo | Pinterest

World Map Outline Lat Long



Many riches underlie Canadian Prairies - The Northern Miner

Regional Geology of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba


Athabasca Basin - DigiGeoData


Saskatchewan-N-Meteorite - CGEN Archive

Meteorite Craters in Saskatchewan


Mountains and Valleys

Mountains & Valleys


Understanding the Richter Scale - YouTube

Understanding the Richter Scale (5:57)

M 4.3 – 31 km NW of Rocky Mountain House, Canada

  • 2021-10-21 03:23:21 (UTC)
  • 52.555°N 115.273°W
  • 10.0 km depth


Flin Flon Regional Geology


Ore Deposits 101

ORE DEPOSITS 101 – Part 7 – VMS and Sedex (33:29)

A Chronology of Minerals Development in Canada


Residual Magnetic Intesity Flin Flon Region

Toxic Landscapes and Technofossils: A Speculative Anthology of Flin Flon, Manitoba (Anastasia Kowalchuk, 2019)



The Science and (Lost) Art of Psoralen Plus UVA Phototherapy - Dermatologic  Clinics

Electromagnetic Spectrum Wavelengths

Electromagnetic waves are waves that can cause charged particles (such as electrons) to move up and down. These waves have both electrical and magnetic properties and can travel through gases, liquids, solids, and through empty space (or a vacuum) at nearly 300,000 kilometers per second (the speed of light).

Electromagnetic waves are characterized by wavelength and frequency. The wavelength is the distance between two wave crests or troughs. The highest point of a wave is called the crest, and the lowest point of a wave is called the trough. Frequency is expressed in hertz (Hz) and refers to the number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point in 1 second. The shorter the wavelength is, the higher its frequency will be. The reverse is also true. For example, radio waves have the longest wavelength and the lowest frequency.


General Circulation of the Atmosphere

General Circulation of the Atmosphere


Commercial feasibility study of a small-scale wind turbine manufacturing in  South Africa | Semantic Scholar


How to Read Wind Barbs: 7 Steps (with Pictures) - wikiHow


Winter 1947, SK

Winter of 1947, Saskatchewan

This week-by-week lookback from the Oxbow Herald gives you an idea of how rapidly things went south on the Canadian Prairie. The storms started boxing day [1946], and continued, on and off, for weeks.

We can just imagine the exasperation in the newsroom of the Regina Leader-Post in mid-January, 1947, when the front page read Province Just One Big Snowdrift.” And even then, the worst was yet to come, with storm after storm finally culminating in a 10-day monster, ending on February 8, that Environment Canada calls the worst storm in Canadian railroad history.

Transportation shut down almost completely, with tracks shut for days or weeks, and some roads closed until the spring. Crews had to dig down for several metres just to find the tracks. Only the tops of telephone poles were visible in some districts.”


Peering into the secret world of life beneath winter snows

Snow covers some 40 percent of Earth’s land masses year in and year out.

…[Snow creates] the subnivium, a seasonal and sensitive refuge beneath the snow’s surface that’s insulated and maintains a constant temperature. It’s nature’s igloo.

“In a warmer world with less snow, winter soils would be colder because the insulating snow layer on top is reduced,” says Henry Gholz, a program director in NSF’s Division of Environmental Biology. “That has implications for farmers planting crops in spring, as well as for the many burrowing mammals, microbes and insects that overwinter in snow.”



Biology:  The Study of Life

Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia (and Viruses)


How Evolution Works (11:47)


Taxonomy (Penguin Prof)

Taxonomy and Systematics (Penguin Prof, 15:53)

Hierarchy of Classification

“Dumb Kids Playing Cards On Freeway Get Smashed”

Say it aloud, ten times (10x).



NOT a Kingdom:  “The Zombie Empire”


T4 Bacteriophage

The Deadliest Being on Planet Earth – The Bacteriophage (7:08)

bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/ˈfeɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria and archaea. The term was derived from “bacteria” and the Greek φαγεν (phagein), meaning “to devour”. Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome, and may have structures that are either simple or elaborate. Their genomes may encode as few as four genes (e.g. MS2) and as many as hundreds of genes. Phages replicate within the bacterium following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm.

Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[2] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. It is estimated there are more than 1031 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined.[3] Viruses are the most abundant biological entity in the water column of the world’s oceans, and the second largest component of biomass after prokaryotes,[4] where up to 9×108 virions per millilitre have been found in microbial mats at the surface,[5] and up to 70% of marine bacteria may be infected by phages.[6]


Monera & Protista

Cells Inside of Cells

Where Did Eukaryotic Cells Come From? – Endosymbiotic Theory (10:01)



Wood Wide Web

The Wood Wide Web

“Sixty-seven Douglas fir trees of various ages were found to be intricately connected below ground by ectomychorrhiza from the Rhizopogon genus. Rhizopogon, which means ‘root beard’ in Greek, is commonly found living in a symbiotic relationship with pine and fir trees, and thus is thought to play an important ecological role in coniferous forests. Areas occupied and trees connected by Rhizopogon vesiculosus are shaded blue, or shown with blue lines, while Rhizopogon vinicolor colonies and connections between trees are coloured pink, or shown by pink lines. The most highly connected tree was linked to 47 other trees through eight colonies of R. vesiculosus and three of R. vinicolor.”

Biogeochemical transformation of rocks, minerals, and metals into plant nutrients by fungi

Underground Networking: The Amazing Connections Beneath Your Feet




Plant Types Evolution


How to cut a tire and make it into a garden pot.wmv - YouTube

How to cut a tire and make it into a garden pot. (3:29)


Composted Fish Scraps Boost Growth



Giardia (2)


Giardia is a microscopic parasite [about 10 um long] that causes the diarrheal illness known as giardiasis. Giardia (also known as Giardia intestinalisGiardia lamblia, or Giardia duodenalis) is found on surfaces or in soil, food, or water that has been contaminated with feces (poop) from infected humans or animals.

Giardia is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time and makes it tolerant to chlorine disinfection. While the parasite can be spread in different ways, water (drinking water and recreational water) is the most common mode of transmission.


Vagus Nerve

Autonomic Nervous System & The Vagus Nerve.

Your gut is directly connected to your brain, by a newly discovered neuron circuit

By Emily Underwood Sep. 20, 2018 , 2:00 PM

“In a petri dish, enteroendocrine cells reached out to vagal neurons and formed synaptic connections with each other. The cells even gushed out glutamate, a neurotransmitter involved in smell and taste, which the vagal neurons picked up on within 100 milliseconds—faster than an eyeblink.”


The Senses


Sound Range Heard by Animals

Hearing Abilities


Human Echolocation



“The human nose has roughly 400 types of scent receptors that can detect at least 1 trillion different odours.”


Human Eye Sensitivity to Light

Human Vision and Color Perception



“The smallest pattern that could be distinguished from the non-patterned surface had grooves with a wavelength of 760 nanometres and an amplitude of only 13 nanometres.”


526 teeth in boy, Chennai, India

Surgeons Remove More Than 500 Teeth From Boy In India

A 7-year-old boy had long complained of having a swollen and aching jaw. Surgeons at the Saveetha Dental College and Hospital in Chennai, India, operated and found 526 teeth crammed inside his mouth.


Pain Assessment Tool


Why Are There So Many Humans?


Natural selection vs Artificial selection : interestingasfuck

Artificial Selection – Evidence of Common Descent


Cannibal Rabbit

Adorable snowshoe hares found to routinely feast on their own dead

The Yukon hares ate lynx, they ate birds such as snow buntings and spruce grouse — and they ate their own brethren. A hare carcass left in a stand of trees in late 2015 was scavenged 24 times by fellow hares within the course of a week.

 “It was almost 15 per cent of the carcasses we had put out (that) had a snowshoe hare scavenging at them … so it seems like something that is pretty regular in their winter diet,” University of Alberta researcher Michael Peers, the study’s lead author, told the Edmonton Journal.


Ghost Moose & Ticks

What happened here?

Study area and Moose Management Units (MMU) delineated within the... |  Download Scientific Diagram

Demographic Status of Moose Populations in the Boreal Plain Ecozone of Canada (2019)


World Record Lake Trout | FISHING FURY - A Fishing Blog with Attitude!

102 lb (46 kg) Lake Trout, Lake Athabasca, Saskatchewan, 1961


Let's learn: Lake Winnipeg Watershed | Lake Winnipeg Foundation

Lake Winnipeg Watershed

Map of Canada’s Watersheds


Mosquitoes & Black Flies (Biting Insects) | Algonquin Provincial Park | The  Friends of Algonquin Park

Black Fly

Black Fly (Wade Hemsworth, NFB, 5:13)



Inverse Square Law for Light Radiation

Inverse Square Law for Light Radiation

“The brightness of any point-source illumination diminishes rapidly with distance. This weakening of light is called fall-off.

It diminishes according to the inverse square law, which states that the effect of a light shining on a surface weakens at a rate comparable to the square of the distance between source and surface.

As the diagram above demonstrates, at twice the distance, the light is only one fourth as bright because the same rays must cover four times the area. At three times the distance, it drops to one ninth as bright.”


Cosmic Scale

The Cosmic Scale (SEA, 33:11)

The Scale of the Universe (9:43)


Inverse Square Law for Gravity

Inverse Square Law for Gravity


Force of Gravity at Distance from Earth

Newton’s law of gravity


Law of Universal Gravitation

Isaac Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation


Gravitational Pull of the Planets

Visualizing the Gravitational Pull of the Planets (1:28)


Gravity and Escape Velocity

Gravity and Escape Velocity


Gravity and Center of Mass

Calculating the Force of Gravity Between Two Objects


Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion


How Earth Moves

How Earth Moves (21:36)


Motion under gravity


What is an Intuition?. I think we all agree that intuition is… | by  StillJustJames | Tranquillity's Secret | Medium

Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), Soviet physicist and rocket pioneer, using an ear trumpet of his own design.


Earth from the Moon

The first photo of Earth from the moon was taken on August 23, 1966. (NASA)





Lava Lamp

Thermochemical convection in Earth's mantle

Thermochemical convection in Earth’s mantle as it might be now, inferred from Davaille’s laboratory simulations1 with a buoyancy ratio of <0.5.


periodic table | Definition, Elements, Groups, Charges, Trends, &amp; Facts |  Britannica

pH Scale Scratch Chemist

pH Scale & Notes (Scratch Chemist)

Proper Definition of pH

The pH scale was originally introduced by the Danish biochemist S.P.L. Sørenson in 1909 using the symbol pH. The letter p is derived from the German word potenz meaning power or exponent of, in this case, 10. In 1909, S.P.L. Sørenson published a paper in Biochem Z in which he discussed the effect of H+ ions on the activity of enzymes. In the paper, he invented the term pH (purported to mean pondus hydrogenii in Latin) to describe this effect and defined it as the −log[H+]. In 1924, Sørenson realized that the pH of a solution is a function of the “activity” of the H+ ion and not the concentration. Thus, he published a second paper on the subject. A better definition would be

pH=−log a{H+}

where a{H+} denotes the activity (an effective concentration) of the H+ ions. The activity of an ion is a function of many variables of which concentration is one.

  • Concentration is abbreviated by using square brackets, e.g., [H3O+] is the concentration of hydronium ion in solution.
  • Activity is abbreviated by using “a” with curly brackets, e.g., a{H3O+}  is the activity of hydronium ions in solution.

Effective Range of the pH Scale


Groundwater, Florida, Karst

Groundwater, Florida Karst Example


Giant Mine

This is Giant Mine

This gold mine was once so dangerous that it killed a toddler who ate snow two kilometres away.

Arsenic and Gold Mining   …   Canada’s taxpayers ante up billions to clean up the mistakes of the past.  Welcome to the Giant Mine, an abandoned gold mine in Yellowknife, capital of the Northwest Territories (see map).  The Canadian government first took charge of it in 1999 after the owner declared bankruptcy and walked away.  It is one of an estimated 10,000 orphaned or abandoned mines in Canada’s north that are now the government’s responsibility.  And it is full of arsenic trioxide, a compound that is produced by heating arsenopyrite ore, a mineral that has traces of gold.  Arsenic trioxide is odourless, tasteless, highly soluble—and lethal.  An amount smaller than a pea is enough to kill.  The Giant Mine has 237,000 tonnes of the stuff.


O que é radiação terrestre - definição

Uranium Series Decay Chain

ORAU Museum of Radiation and Radioactivity


Science 10 Final Exam Creighton 2018

Science 10 Final Exam 2019F


Flat Earth Proof

Man Wanting to Prove Earth Is Flat Dies in Homemade Rocket Crash

“‘I don’t believe in science,” said Hughes back in 2017. “I know about aerodynamics and fluid dynamics and how things move through the air, about the certain size of rocket nozzles, and thrust. But that’s not science, that’s just a formula. There’s no difference between science and science fiction.’”