Remembrance Day


“Pictured above is an important example of a WWI Facial Prosthetic…. It was hand formed of copper and then galvanized. The face parts were then painted while the patient was wearing it to best blend with their complexion. The eye is glass and was also custom made to match the wearers eye. It looks to be the work of Anna Coleman Ladd and Francis Derwent Wood in their Paris studio.”

Plastic Reconstruction of the Face (Silent Film, 1918)   …   Anna Coleman Ladd and Francis Derwent Wood at work.

WW1 Reconstructive Surgery Practices of Harold Gillies   …   Astonishing work.  (Video:  6 minutes.)

Johnny, I Hardly Knew Ye (Benjamin Luxon & Bill Crofut)   …   Oh my darling dear, ye look so queer….”

Facial Discrimination (Neil Steinberg)   …   “Until not so long ago, those reluctant to see people whose appearances stray beyond the range of the usual actually had the law on their side. Many cities in the United States had “ugly laws” designed primarily to reduce public begging. Chicago’s law read:

Any person who is diseased, maimed, mutilated or in any way deformed, so as to be an unsightly or disgusting object, or an improper person to be allowed in or on the streets, highways, thoroughfares or public places in this city, shall not therein or thereon expose himself or herself to public view…

The law was not repealed until 1974.”


Canada WW1 Casualties


The Cost of Canada’s War   …   Of the more than 172,000 Canadians who reported wounds during the war, medical authorities classified approximately 138,000 as battle casualties. The rest were injuries suffered away from the war zone. Of the wounded who survived, 3,461 men and one woman had a limb amputated. One soldier, Curly Christian, was the only Canadian to lose all four limbs and survive. No reliable method existed for tracking or treating psychological casualties, but authorities identified over 9,000 Canadians as suffering from “shell shock”.

Letter From Captain F.A.C. Scringer, V.C.  (June 16th, 1915)   “…five eight inch shells hit within fifteen feet, three in front and one in the water and one in the opposite bank not more than ten feet away.  …

…  To cap it off the fire started off two hundred thousand rounds of rifle ammunition which was stored within 30-40 feet.  …

P.S.  We got all the wounded out before the fire reached that part of the building.”

Flying and dying in WWI: British aircrew losses and the origins of U.S. military aviation medicine.   …   Recent analyses from academic British sources demonstrate that of 153 British military fliers who died while flying between August 1914 and December 1915, 89 (58%) were killed in action or died of their wounds soon after being shot down, and 64 (42%) perished from injuries suffered in training or operational mishaps.

Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century

War and Peace Statistics Graphics

World War One   …   Explore the worldwide implications of the war in Origins, outbreak and conclusions; the logistics of military organisation in The war machine; and the realities of warfare in Life of a soldier and in Race, empire and colonial troops. Consider the roles of non-combatants in Civilians, the power of persuasion in Propaganda, creative responses to the war in Representation and memory; and the changing nature of our perceptions of war in Historiography.

Anthem of the Rainbow (Odetta)   …   For all those who remember soldiers, and for all of the soldiers who are remembered.



Raemaekers' Cartoon History of the War V1 (The Reaper)

Raemaekers’ Cartoon History of the War   …   Volume 1, The First Twelve Months of War (Louis Raemaekers, 1918)   …   On one occasion only has he publicly referred to his experiences in Belgium. It was at a dinner given him by the artists and literary men of London at the Savage Club, where, pointing to the portraits and trophies of Peary, Scott, Nansen, Shackleton, and other explorers which hang on the walls, he said: “I, too, have been an explorer, Gentlemen. I have explored a hell, and it was terror unspeakable.”


Canada and the First World War   …   By the Armistice, chemical shells made up 35 percent of French and German ammunition supplies, 25 percent British and 20 percent American.

Brief History of Chemical War   …   World War I ends with 1.3 million casualties caused by chemical weapons, including 90,000 to 100,000 fatalities, primarily from phosgene.



Mother and Child Wearing Gas Masks (France.  April, 1918)   …   The masks in this photograph are British issue, but these had become obsolete by 1916:  they are Pheno-hexamine gas helmets and were replaced by the Small Box Respirator.

Gas mask or respirator for a messenger or guard dog, WWI

Gas mask/respirator for a messenger or guard dog, WWI.  Although the mask has no gas cannister, it may have been soaked in a chemical such as phenol to give the animal additional protection.

How chemical weapons from the first world war never went away   …   An estimated 1.4 billion shells  were fired in the first world war, of which 66 million were  chemical. Of those, about 30 per cent failed to explode. Most of the duds ended up buried along the western front, 800 kilometres of  trench that stretched from the North Sea to Switzerland. A further 13 million were never fired.   

Gas masks eventually cut the death rate of soldiers exposed to gas from 25 to 3 per cent. 

Chemical Warfare and Medical Response During World War 1 (Fitzgerald) 


Nuclear, Biological, Chemical Weapons Symbols

Weapons of Mass Destruction

History of Chemical Warfare (Noblis)


International Criminal Court

Peacekeeping Resource Hub

War and International Humanitarian Law




“Written in blood.”

An image of the Canadian Parliament Building shows above.  The Peace Tower is in the middle.  The Peace Tower clock is also on a $50 Bill, which is red.  The time showing on the $50 Bill is 11:00. 

George Lawrence Price   …   The last British Empire soldier killed in World War I.  Died at 10:58, 11th November, 1918.  28th ‘Northwest’ Battalion Canadian Infantry (Saskatchewan Regiment) aka. ‘the Nor’westers’.  Enlisted at Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Canadian Military and Peacekeeping Library and Archives

War Measures Act Announced by Pierre Trudeau on October 16, 1970

Veterans Affairs Canada




Remembrance Day, Poppies, & In Flanders Fields


Tomb of The Unknown Soldier, in Canada.   …   The soldier’s original stone marker at Plot 8, Row E, Grave 7 in Cabaret-Rouge British Cemetery, France, told us that he is known unto God.


Hemingway on War and Its Aftermath


On the Psychology of Military Incompetence (Norman Dixon)   …   “It is a feature of strongly held dogmas that they steadfastly resist not only unpalatable truths but even the faintest suggestion of the barest possibility of the most tangential reference to an unacceptable fact.  Better that men should die and cities be overrun than the sacred teachings should be found wanting.” (p. 136)


God Loves My Country (Balthrop, Alabama)