Amanita muscaria (Fly agaric) is a highly poisonous mushroom that can have a red or yellow cap, The cap often has white warts on the surface and there maybe a veil and enlarged volva at the base of the stalk. It is called a fly agaric because some folks would put pieces of the mushroom in a small bowl of milk in order to entice and kill flies. In Siberia some people would drink a tea made from this mushroom for its hallucinogenic effects, others would drink the urine from those that ingested this mushroom to avoid some of the unpleasant side effects. The ferociousness of Viking Berserkers has also been attributed to eating this mushroom before battle (Davis et. al. 2012 Field Guide to Mushrooms of Western North America , page 36).


Altered States of Consciousness (Ember & Carolus, 2017)

An Anthropological Analysis of Ayahuasca (Seddon, 2014)

Analysis of the differences between hallucinations caused by natural hallucinogens and schizophrenia (Kristofer L. Korth)

Ayahuasca:  Basic Info (ICEERS)

Ayahuasca: Psychological and Physiologic Effects, Pharmacology and
Potential Uses in Addiction and Mental Illness (Hamill, et al. 2019)

Beauty of the Primitive: Shamanism and Western Imagination (Znamenski, 2007)

Beginner’s Guide to Healing with Huachuma (San Pedro) (Balam Seer)

Center for Substance Abuse Research

Chacruna Institute for Psychedelic Plant Medicines

Court Decision Regarding the Native American Church (Arizona, 1960)

Cultures of chemically induced hallucinations (Vaughn Bell, 2014)

Drugs from the Colonies (John Carter Brown Library)

Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants:  Ethnopharmacology

Entheogen (Psychonaut Wiki)


Handbook of Medicinal Herbs (James A. Duke, CRC Press, 2002)

Hallucinogenic Drugs (Katherine Bonson, 2001)

Hallucinogenic drugs in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures (F.J. Carod-Artal, 2015)

Hallucinogenic Plants (Richard Evans Shultes, Golden Press, 1976)

Identification of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and β-carbolines in psychotropic ayahuasca beverage (Gamelunghe, et al.  2008)

Identity of a New World Psychoactive Toad (Davis & Weil, 1992)

Indigenous Religious Traditions

International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research, & Service (ICEERS)

Legal Bases for Religious Peyote Use (Kevin Feeney, 2007)

Medicinal Plants of the North Cascades (Martine Mariott, 2010)

Mystery of why magic mushrooms go blue solved

Native American Church (iPortal, U of S)

Native American Church:  Higher Court Rulings

Native American Ethnobotany Database

Native hallucinogenic drugs piptadenias (Marcel Granier-Doyeux, UN, 1965)

Neo-Shamanism (Scuro & Rodd, 2015)

Oklevueha Native American Church

People v. Woody:  Opinion (California, 1964)

Peyote (CESAR)

Peyote and the racialized war on drugs (Lisa Barnett, 2016)

Peyote Exemption for Native American Church (US DEA, 1981)

Peyote as Medicine (Kevin Feeney, 2013)

Phytognosis (Spencer Woodard)

Psilocybe (Mushroom Observer)

Psychedelic Library

Road to Eleusis (Wasson, Hofmann, & Ruck.  c. 1977)

Rites of Passage

Spirituality and Health (Manitoba, 2017)

Supreme Court Rules that Religious Group Can Use Illegal Drug (2008)

Technique of Psychotherapy (Lewis R. Wolfberg, 2013)

Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca (Fresca, Bokor, & Winkelman, 2016)

Traditional Medicine (Indigenous Studies Portal Research Tool, U of S)

Traditional Medicine for Canada’s First Peoples (Raymond Obomsawin, 2007)

Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991)

Traditional use of medicinal plants of the boreal forest of Canada (Uprety, et al, 2012)

Under the Spell of the Magic Mint (Christopher Ketcham, MAPS, 2007)


Botanic Gardens Conservation International 

Calgary Horticultural Society

Commercial Composting of Fisheries Waste

Composting for the Home Owner

Holistic Agriculture Library 


Master Gardener Basic Training Program

Soil Amendments

U of S Fruit Program