Interior Design

Original Dwelling, New Tribal Labyrinth, Joep van Lieshout

The Original Dwelling is part of the ongoing series New Tribal Labyrinth which presents a vision of a future, yet primitive, world inhabited by imaginary tribes where there will be different ethics,” said the studio, which is led by artist Joep van Lieshout.


Interior Designer vs. Interior Decorator vs. Architect

Persons per Bedroom Survey PDF

Interior Design 30 Course Outline Creighton 2020F (Damian Boyle)

Interior Design 30 SK 1999 Marked Up (Damian Boyle)

Interior Design 30 Notes 2021F PDF

Interior Design 30 2021F Notes

Interior Design 30 Notes 2020 Fall

Housing and Design, Level 3 (Tasmania, 2021)

Interior Design Course Syllabus – Lexington-Richland School

Planner 5D – Home & Interior Design App

Little Boxes (Malvina Reynolds)


Guiding Questions

  • What is the purpose of the interior design of a space?
  • Who will use the space (by ages, by numbers)?
  • What will the space be used for?
  • How often will it be used for certain purposes?
  • Over what span of time will the space be used?
  • What materials would be used to craft the space?
  • How durable are the different materials that are available?
  • Which materials would be the most economical to use?
  • What technical standards MUST be observed?
  • How many hours of labour would it take to craft the space as intended?
  • How does the interior space connect with the external environment?


Young Frankentein Castle Interior

Young Frankenstein (1974.  Castle Interior)

Project Design Critique Process

“Without reservation, and without prejudice.”

  • Checklists: agreement and exceptions.
  • What do I like?
  • What do I NOT like?
  • What am I curious about?
  • What am I not persuaded of?
  • What about….?
  • My suggestions are….
  • On a scale of 1 to 10, I say we’re at a….
  • My three priorities for improvements would be…


Project Details

  1. W5H (Who, What, When, Where, Why, How)
  2. History of Development (Time Lines with Specific Dates)
  3. Norms and Extremes (Size, Location, Age, Statistics, Unusual Examples)
  4. News (Recent Developments and Improvements)
  5. Sources of Information (Names, Dates, Hyperlinks)
  6. Images (Photographs, Diagrams, Drawings, Paintings, X-Ray Images,   Infra-Red Thermographs, Satellite Images, Videos, …)
  7. Technical Drawings (Planner 5D, Floor Plan, Elevations, Bird’s Eye Views, Distance Scale, Legend)
  8. Specifications (Number of Occupants and Ages, LxWxH, Weights, Tables, Charts, Graphs, Surveys, SAE & SI Conversions, Colours, Materials, Textures, Lighting Type & Intensity, Furnishings, Privacy, Sound Absorption & Reflectance, Air Quality Management, Heating System, Water & Waste Water System, Building Code, Fire Code, Safety Regulations)
  9. Minimal Amount of Words (Provide explanations of your selected images and your reasons for choosing these with the least amount of text that is necessary.)
  10. Common Names and Terms plus Technical Names and Terms
  11. Error Free (Facts, Figures, Spelling, Punctuation, Attributions)
  12. Digital Documents Submission by Email (You may share your project information in any freely accessible file type, such as:  MS Word, MS PowerPoint, MS Outlook, Google Docs, Gmail, Adobe PDF, Video, Planner 5D File Share.  You may also share your project information by hyperlinks to your products posted on a Word Press Blog Page, on YouTube, or on other such social media platforms.)


Disorientated & Confused

Lately I have been feeling disoriented and confused at work – and I keep bumping into people. 

Is it just me, I wonder? 

Or is there something weird about this building? 


Face Hugger

Mould Does This

Lawyers in Love (Jackson Browne)


Residential School Dorm

Indian Residential School Dormitory in Canada (may be Kenora, Ontario)

Truth and Reconciliation Commission: By the numbers

Odds of dying for children in Indian residential schools:  1 in 25.

Odds of dying for Canadians serving in WW2:  1 in 26.

Qu’appelle Valley, Saskatchewan (Buffy Sainte Marie)


Buchenwald Camp (April, 1945)

Buchenwald Camp, 1945

Survivors lie on wooden bunks that are four tiers high in a barracks in the Buchenwald concentration camp.  Photographed by Donald R. Ornitz. Buchenwald, [Thuringia] Germany, April 11, 1945 – April 23, 1945.


Roman House

Roman House Design, about 2000 years old.  Hortus (garden) faces south.  Note the “air conditioning” with the cooling pond (as air naturally flows from high pressure to low pressure areas) and the “sky light” in the central area.


Tile Mosaic Floor (Pompeii, Italy)

Tile mosaic floor.  Pompeii, Italy.  About 2000 years old.

Tile mosaic pieces can be easily made from assorted job site tile scraps, discards, and leftovers.  Tile cement and grout can easily be made with fine sand and inexpensive commercial cement products. Beautiful, long lasting, and low cost.

Art of Pompeii (Jade Koekoe)

 Ceramic Tile Advice Forums – John Bridge Ceramic Tile

Flowers on the Wall (Eric Heatherly)


Roman Taberna

Roman Taberna (Fast Food Restaurant), in Pompeii, about 2000 years old.  Ceiling height would have provided the air volume to control the relative humidity and allow for particulate dilution and dispersion.


Cleaning Checklists & Schedules

13 Cleaning Checklists

Easy to clean? 



Cleaning Practices & COVID-19 Exposure

Streamlined NIST Tool Could Help Homeowners, Renters Reduce Airborne Exposure to COVID (24.11.2021)


Air Pressure Zones

Temporary Isolation Rooms during Pandemic in addition to waiting room  (Note areas of Positive Pressure and Negative Air Pressure.)


Health Conditions Associated with Air Quality

Health conditions associated with poor air quality.

Indoor Air Quality Control

  1. What negative health effects are associated with poor air quality?
  2. What is the least cost and quickest way to improve air quality in an area?
  3. What areas and volumes can be effectively treated by particular system designs?


RH and Health Effects


Air Exchange Unit

DIY Controlled Mechanical Ventilation System  This is an outstanding “How To” blog.  Read it all.


Filtration Effective Area

Filtration / Disinfection (ASHRAE)

What area is effectively treated by a system?


Wind Towers

How does a building’s exterior design affect interior air quality?


Radon Movement

Radon Gas in House Basements

The annual death rate in Canada from exposure to radon-induced lung cancer is 3,200 deaths, higher than carbon monoxide 1,898 deaths, car accidents 300 deaths and house fires 109 deaths combined.


Attic Bedroom (Skoga, Iceland)An attic (sometimes referred to as a loft) is a space found directly below the pitched roof of a house or other building; an attic may also be called a sky parlor[1] or a garret

Only the Wind (Olafur Arnalds)


Russian Stove

This massive “Russian Stove” was used for cooking, and as a heat sink to keep the dwelling warm (or not too hot).  Some were big enough for people to sleep on top of in winter. 

The Tale of Ivan Groove (Otavo Yo)

Russian Folk —  Troika (balalaika)

New York City Council votes to ban natural gas stovetops in new buildings (15.12.2021)


Row Houses

Row Houses in Nunavik, Quebec

  1. What Size of a Furnace is Required?
  2. What Size of an Air Conditioning Unit is Required?


Furnace Room



Fire Sprinkler Operation

How home fire sprinklers work (NFPA)


Smart Home Technology & Intelligent Interior Design

Warning:  Hand Rail Design Shown is Dangerous

Smart Home Technology and Intelligent Interior Design

According to the National Council for Home Safety and Security (, 

  • 57% of Americans say that having smart products in their house saves them about 30 minutes per day, that’s 182.5 hours a year, or roughly a week and a half. 
  • 47% of Millennials already own some smart home devices 
  • 70% of those who already own one product are planning to buy another one. 

Smart Home Testbed Platform (Barkhausen Institut)

10 Things that Block Wi-Fi Signals

10 Things in Your Home that Interfere with and Block Wi-Fi Signals


Woodland Elf Home

Image:  Andrew Self

How might the interior of this Woodland Elf dwelling be laid out and decorated?

Stolen Child (The Waterboys)


Spiral Staircase with Counter Top Treads, for Bus Home

Spiral Staircase DIY with Counter Top Treads, for a Bus Home (4:59)

“The treads are cut from the Ikea Numerar countertop. For the steel we paid maybe around $200 and the countertop about $160 making these stairs a lot cheaper than any I could find online. 7 Steps at 30 degrees with a 9inch rise.”


Building a Rustic Log Cabin - Wood Plank Flooring

Building a Rustic Log Cabin: Wood Plank Flooring and the Cost of Early Retirement (36:10)


Stackwall House Interior

A Day Living Off Grid In A Cabin In The Woods (35:32)

5 Years Living Off Grid Building A Sustainable Smallholding (23:49)


Paris Apartment, 31sqm or 344sqft

Paris Micro Apartment (Never Too Small, 2021)

Paris Architect’s Micro Apartment – 31sqm/344sqft (8:13)

Fold and Slide Layout Options

Hong Kong Housing Authority to offer smallest flats ever at 186 sq ft


75 Types of Wood Ranked by Hardness

75 Types of Wood Ranked by Janka Hardness and How They Are Used

“This wood hardness list ranks 75 types of wood by their Janka rating. Explore our wood density chart to see which hardwood is the best for your next project! The Janka hardness scale measures the force that’s required to embed a steel ball halfway through a sample of wood. The ball is 0.444 inches in diameter and fired with increasing force. The pounds of force (or newtons if you’re using the metric system) needed to push the ball to the center is the Janka value you end up with. It’s a great way to measure how resistant a piece of wood is to denting and wear. Our Janka wood hardness chart shows how durable certain wood types are.”  Download the PDF to view the samples in detail.


A wood’s natural colour will change with exposure to light, which tends to have a bleaching or lightening effect.  Ordinary environmental chemicals in the air, such as smoke, tend to darken wood colours.  The natural grain of the wood may be accentuated by the application of dyes or stains.  The overall colour of the wood may be altered with the application of oils, which have their own colour, and which may also be used to carry dyes or stains into the wood.

Water will cause dry wood to swell.  Oiling wood can reduce the amount of water absorbed by the wood – for a period of time.  Wood floors and furniture can be badly damaged by excessive moisture levels unless they are designed to accommodate such circumstances by “movement spaces”.


Image result for maison cercueil hong kong

A subdivided residential unit, known as a “coffin home”, inside a building in Hong Kong.

Gravedigger Blues (Justin Johnson, on Shovel Guitar)



Flinders Street Station redevelopment competition proposal by HASSELL +  Herzog & de Meuron - YouTube

Flinders Street Station redevelopment competition proposal by HASSELL + Herzog & de Meuron (2:00)

Jungle (Tash Sultana, Bedroom Live Performance)


Cave Dwelling Interior

Cave Dwelling:  Sitting Area, Writing Desk, and Bed

Cave Dwelling Floor Plan

Cave Dwelling Floor Plan (Sierra Morena, Spain)

Man Digs a Hole in a Mountain and Turns it Into an Amazing Apartment (15:17)

Killing Good Ideas Can Harm Your Future (Caveman Focus Group)

Easy Water (Caveman)



Human Scale

Human Scale



Floor Plan ~4000 years old


Six Views of a Cuboid

An Introduction to Orthographic Projection


Design for Ceiling and Four Walls of Room

Drawing, Design for Ceiling and Four Walls of Room; Designed by Frederick Crace (English, 1779–1859); England; pen and gray ink, brush and watercolor on off-white wove paper; 38.6 x 28.9 cm (15 3/16 x 11 3/8 in.); It is dated 1815–22.


Floor Plan and Furniture Layout

How to Create a Floor Plan and Furniture Layout


Point of View Drawings

Point of View (POV) Drawing


3D Scale Model

How to Build a 3D Scale Model


Scale Mock Up


Oh My Darling Clementine (The Sweptaways)


Full Scale Layout

Scale drawings and plans (OpenLearn)

Use scale rulers to determine actual dimensions from drawings


Floor & Roof Plan Scale Drawing (1 to 48)

Note:  The Roof Lines are Shown Also


Elevation Drawing

Elevation Drawing


Specs Overrule Drawings

Specs overrule drawings… no, really?!

Accuracy and completeness of Contract Specifications   …   A Contract is in force the moment it is signed, or dated to be effective. Once a contract comes into force, any thing that has been left-out, or not properly defined, can be only corrected through a Negotiated Supplementary Agreement. A Contract and Specifications must not leave out any aspect, as something to be agreed or determined later on (e.g. a clause like: plastic paint of x quality, but colour shade to be approved later).


Project Design Specifications Tables

Project Design Specifications Documentation


Specification Sheet Template

Word 2016 – Tables (GCF Global)

Insert a table (Microsoft Word)

Format a table (Microsoft Word)


Product specifications and performance information may be found on consumer protection websites such as:

Specifications and product reviews may also be found on vendor websites such as:


Coefficient of Friction

The roughness of a floor surface is expressed using the friction coefficient (µ).  In practice, the friction of a floor can only be measured using testing equipment.

Coefficient of Friction Rating Committee


Rhombus Tile, Patterned, Greys

Tile Grout Colours

How to Choose Grout Like a Pro

Terrazzo, Tile and Marble Setter Trade

Tilesetter (SK Apprenticeship & Trade Certification)


Enzo Mari Table Cropped

Enzo Mari, Table – Autoprogettazione (Italy,1974)  Natural pine wood, black lacquered metal
78½ w X 31½ d X 28½ h in. (199½ w X 80 d X 72½ h cm.)

Of all of the numerous design projects along Mari’s career, Proposta per un’Autoprogettazione (Proposal for a Self-Design) occupies a special place due to its ability to deliver a message through the creation of an object. In 1974, he published the book Autoprogettazione with instructions on how to build easy-to-assemble/do-it-yourslef furniture using as raw material only rough boards and nails. In the book, Enzo Mari uses the term Autoprogettazione as a concept to bring awareness of the process of “making” and design, and instructs the reader to build practical and useful furniture pieces through very simple techniques; hoping that the benefits drawn from this process of “making” would be more valuable than the object being made. That same year, in 1974, Mari and Simon (Dino) Gavina collaborated in the project Metamobile, which focused on producing a small number of tables, chairs and beds using the Autoprogettazione designs at Simon Gavina’s plant in Calcinelli di Fano. These Autoprogettazione designs made through the Metamobile project were also made using simple pine wood boards, but were to be assembled with screws, washers and nuts–as opposed to using nails as was prescribed in the do-it-your-self instructions published in the Autoprogettazione book.

 “Form is everything and design is death”  —  Enzo Mari


I Would (Fred Eaglesmith



Rustic Chair

Rustic Chair

How to Build a Bent-Willow Chair

Northern Bushcraft (Mors L. Kochanski)

The Development and Effects of the Twentieth-Century Wicker Revival

Machi (Peia)


Rope Bed Construction

  1. Rope Bed Construction (David Canterbury, 10:26)
  2. How to Make an Inexpensive Rope Bed
  3. A Period Rope Bed (David Friedman)
  4. Making a Rope Bed
  5. Take Your Mattress and Stuff It!
  6. Amazing khatiya bunai (7:05)

Making Rope – Medieval to Edwardian technique (2:49)



“There won’t be any design rules in the future. They don’t even exist anymore today. The goal is to choose—emotively and functionally—what you need. To find what delights you. I no longer think it has to have a cabriole leg on it. Who needs gilding?”


Hearing Impaired

International Symbol of Deafness and Hearing Loss   …   In the USA, 12.5% of children aged 6–19 years have permanent hearing damage from excessive noise exposure.[30] The World Health Organization estimates that half of those between 12 and 35 are at risk from using personal audio devices that are too loud.[5]

Decibel Hell: The Effects of Living in a Noisy World (Chepesiuk, 2005)   …   The effects of sound don’t stop with the ears. Nonauditory effects of noise exposure are those effects that don’t cause hearing loss but still can be measured, such as elevated blood pressure, loss of sleep, increased heart rate, cardiovascular constriction, labored breathing, and changes in brain chemistry. According to the WHO Guidelines for Community Noise, “these health effects, in turn, can lead to social handicap, reduced productivity, decreased performance in learning, absenteeism in the workplace and school, increased drug use, and accidents.”

Design Challenge Questions

  1. What interior design features would be most helpful to hearing impaired people?
  2. What interior design features would be most helpful to people with no hearing impairments?

Hearing Damage (Thom Yorke)


Toilet - Efficient Use of Space

Efficient Use of Space?


Low agreement among reviewers evaluating the same NIH grant applications

Lullaby (The Cure)


Toilet Attendant

Has Personal Touches?


This Is Why I’m Broke  There are many odd, unusual, off-beat, fun, and interesting design and decorating ideas to be found on this website.

Alejandro (Lady Gaga)


Thermal Holes

ScanTherm Infrared Thermal Imaging Reveals Heat Loss

Icebound Stream (Laura Veirs)

Insulated Blackout Curtains Fishscale Pattern



Tapestry Rail

This is a wooden rail, or ledger, from which to hang tapestries or pictures.  Something like this can be made easily and for little cost.  Tapestries absorb sound waves and dampen transmission through walls.  Tapestries, like window curtains, also provide an insulating air layer in front of exterior walls.

Wall Tapestries Hide Ugly Fast (and can be cheaper  than paint)

Sunlight Forest Tapestry Nature Art Tapestry Wall Hanging Tree Theme Wall  Art Decorations Tapestry Forest Scenery Wall Tapestry for Bedroom Room Dorm  Outdoor Decor | Wish

I like images of nature.  Nature has fundamental symmetry, but is always imperfect and so randomness is everywhere.  I find this far more interesting and relaxing to contemplate than any humanly generated regular patterns.




The Palace of Versailles, in France, is one of the most costly buildings on the planet.  In the Hall of Mirrors, every window has a mirror opposite.  At the time, this was an incredibly expensive design detail.  Today, mirrors are relatively inexpensive.

Take this Waltz (Leonard Cohen)


House of Mirrors, Kuwait

House of Mirrors, Kuwait City


Tunable LED

Colors (Black Pumas)


Which is the least costly to change:  Material Color or Light Color?


Uncategorized | Michelle Alarcon's ePortfolio

Paint Color Visualizer Apps


Spectros Color Muse Software (and Device)


Paint Diagram

Indicate colours in Specification Sheets by including an example. Provide the hexadecimal codes, also.


Defining Custom Colours

Define and Save a Color List or Palette (Origin 2021 or later)

Change the color, style, or weight of a line (Microsoft)

Change the colors in a text box or shape (Microsoft)


Colour Popularity & Sales

O’ Children (Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds)


Random is Beautiful




Reclaimed Wood Wall Art Decor Lath Pattern Geometric image 5



Datura wrightii

Design Inspiration

The image on the right shows the Datura Wrightii flower and the image on the left shows Pinwheel Cave’s red rock art painting in a similar spiral shape. (Credit: U. Oregon)

Archaeologists have long debated whether mind-altering substances influenced the making of ancient art in caves and rock shelters. The research offers new insight into the roles such substances may have played in some Native American communities.

At Southern California’s Pinwheel Cave, a rock art site associated with the Chumash people, the researchers discovered wads of chewed plant fibers, or quids, stuffed into crevices in the cave ceiling.

Chemical and microscopic analysis of the 400-year-old quids revealed the presence of hallucinogenic alkaloids and confirmed most specimens to be Datura wrightii, or sacred datura, a flowering plant native to California and historically used among the Chumash for ceremonial purposes.

The study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences also confirms that the fibers were crushed in a pattern consistent with chewing.

Sacred datura, a highly poisonous and sometimes lethal perennial with trumpet-shaped flowers, is known to the Chumash as momoy, after a powerful grandmother figure prominent in the tribe’s creation stories.

Pinwheel Cave, about 50 miles northeast of Santa Barbara, is named after a large, red pinwheel motif painted on a sloping section of the cave ceiling. At the summer solstice, sunlight travels across the pinwheel, suggesting a possible relationship between the art and seasonal rituals.

The art may depict the datura flower itself, which unfurls at dusk in a pinwheel-like pattern, says coauthor Kristina Gill, an archaeologist at the University of Oregon’s Museum of Natural and Cultural History and an expert in the archaeobotany of coastal Southern California. Also depicted on the cave ceiling is an anthropomorphized insect, which the researchers suspect may be a hawkmoth.

“Datura attracts hawkmoths as one of its key pollinators, so it wouldn’t come as a surprise to see the two species represented together,” Gill says.’


Motherland (Natalie Merchant)


McMansion Hell

McMansion Hell

This week’s McMansion is brought to you by the neighborhood of McLean, Virginia, infamous for being one of the most McMansion-ridden neighborhoods in all the land. The cause of this phenomenon? Nobody has more money and less taste than DC lobbyists, and this week’s McMansion proves it. On the market for $1,699,900 is this esteemed estate home, built in 2003:

*UCSB dorm designed by billionaire Charlie Munger has no windows

How to design a humane dorm (hint: don’t let a billionaire do it)

Billionaire executive Charlie Munger proposes windowless dormitory for 4,500 students at UC Santa Barbara (13.12.2021)

Projected to cost $1.5 billion and scheduled to open in 2025, Munger Hall will be the world’s densest dormitory and the eighth densest neighborhood in the world, behind a district in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Paul Golderberger, architecture critic for The New Yorker, wrote on Twitter, “This design is a grotesque, sick joke—a jail masquerading as dormitory,”


Nakagin Capsule Tower Movable Unit

Nakagin Capsule Tower, 10 square meter movable unit, Tokyo, 1972.  Designed for businessmen, known in Japan as “salarymen”, who needed a place to stay after a late night at the office.  Their bathrooms are as cramped as an aeroplane lavatory.  There is no room for a kitchen. The cubes were made to be removed from a central metal structure, or skeleton.  The capsules could not be individually plucked out and replaced. Rather, the entire set of capsules above had to be removed.  This meant all owners had to agree when capsules should be removed and replaced, a requirement that ultimately proved insurmountable.


Hurricane Harvey Floodwaters, Texas, 2017

Yay!  We finally got all the interior projects finished!

How to Avoid a Renovation Nightmare

When the Levee Breaks (Kansas Joe McCoy and Memphis Minnie)

“This is one song of many rising out of the flood of 1927. Considered as the worst in modern US history. There are reports about in Arkansas Mississippi river areas where entire African American families were forced to reside on levees 24 hrs a day, 7 days a week to maintain the levee and keep it from failing. If they failed these people would not only lose their life, but the lives of their entire family. Man’s inhumanity to man has no bounds.” (Kenneth Nesmith)