Instructional Design


Is Photography Over? : Open Space

Unknown, Untitled (Man reflected in mirrors), n.d. | photograph | gelatin silver print.  Collection SFMOMA, Gift of Gordon L. Bennett


American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials

ASTD Hand Book for Workplace Learning Professionals 

A Theory-Based Alternative for the Design of Instruction

Alternative Systematic Approaches to Training 

Analysis Phase of Systematic Approach to Training

Canadian Vocational Association

Course Development @ Rennselaer 


Designing and Delivering On-the-Job Training 

Don Clark

Experience in the Use of Systematic Approach to Training   

Faster, Cheaper, Better:  Alternative Approaches to Instructional Design 

Guide to Writing Competency Based Materials

Instructional Design Bibliography (Athabasca University) 

Instructional Design Models 

Instructional Design:  Annotated Bibliography 

International Board of Standards for Training, Performance and Instruction

Learning Games Research 

Manual of Training for Government Officials 

The Six Disciplines of Breakthrough Learning:  A Brief Guide

The Six Disciplines of Breakthrough Learning:  Introduction 

Systematic Approaches to Training and Development  

Ten Steps to Complex Learning

Universal Design of Instruction

Creating Significant Learning Experiences: An Integrated Approach to Designing College Courses (Fink, L. D.)

Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction (Goldman, A. & McGrath, M.)

Experience And Education (Dewey, J.)

Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development (2nd Edition) (Kolb, D. A.)

First Principles of Instruction (Merrill, M. D.)

Graphesis: Visual Forms of Knowledge Production (Drucker, J.)

Handbook of Research For Educational Communications and Technology  (Michael Spector, M. David Merrill, Jan Elen, and M.J. Bishop)

  • This book and much more is available for download with a membership to the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, making the cost of membership an excellent value.

Information Design as Principled Action: Making Information Accessible, Relevant, Understandable, and Usable (Frascara, J.)

In Order to Learn: How the Sequence of Topics Influences Learning  (Ritter, F.E. et al.)

The Life of the Mind: Combined 2 Volumes in 1  (Arendt, Hannah, interpreted by McCarthy, Mary)

Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action  (Habermas, Jürgen, interpreted by Christian,Nicholsen)

Open Source Intelligence Techniques: Resources for Searching and Analyzing Online Information (Bazzell, M.)

Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (Creswell, J. W.)

Thought and Language  (Vygotsky, Lev S., interpreted by Kozulin, Alex)

Training on Trial: How Workplace Learning Must Reinvent Itself to Remain Relevant (Kirkpatrick, J.D. & Kirkpatrick, W.K.)

The Wall Street Journal Guide to Information Graphics: The Do’s And Don’ts Of Presenting Data Facts And Figures (Wong, D. M.)


It is interesting to see what appears to be the same basic training formula showing up in various forms, much like a basic kitchen recipe with a dozen different names. 

What is presented as DACUM and SCID is very similar to SAT (also called ADDIE), and similar to the Problem Solving Model used in personal development work.  Robert Norton has identified that only one week is required for an instructor or trainer to develop minimal competence in these skills, and I am inclined to agree with this.    

Sharif Elabdulwahab has addressed the point of the level of training required for the worker to be competent in the work at hand.  There is no need to be competent in skills which are not required for the task at hand, in terms of customer service. 

Skills must be developed according to work requirements, as much for trainers and instructors as for any other workers. 

There is no need to spend twelve months developing a skill set if the learner can achieve the standards in six months.  To insist that such a learner must attend for twelve months serves the institution, not the learner, and is dishonest. 

The Competency Based Apprenticeship Training system used in Alberta allows apprentices to advance as quickly as they can learn the relevant skills and meet the assessment standards.   This method rewards the individual learner’s efforts and moves the instructional model from andragogy to heutagogy (heuristics). 

The ISO 10015 standard is interesting.  The barrier seems to be the total cost of achieving and maintaining the standard.  

Can the ISO 10015, or something like it, be made a practical certification standard for instructors and trainers, or the institutions of which they are alumni?  If not, perhaps the certification issue is moot.  (How can it be that any fool can be certified as competent to steer two tons of steel down a road at high speed, but to certify instructor and trainer competence should be so difficult?) 

The question is:  What do you see as the minimum amount of time it would take to prepare a TVET Instructor or Trainer, assuming that they are already competent in their field?